Residents of a South African township near Johannesburg have set ablaze the homes of migrants they believe are illegally working in disused local mines.
There has been widespread anger after a large group of miners were accused of the gang rape of eight women last week.
Dozens of people are being held by police in connection with the assault but none have been charged with rape.
In recent years, poverty has been one of the drivers of xenophobic attacks.
Some believe – whether rightly or wrongly – that foreigners are the cause of many of their difficulties.
People in Kagiso say the foreign miners – known locally as Zama Zamas – are responsible for crime in the area. The sexual assaults last week in nearby Krugersdorp enflamed tensions and residents called for a demonstration.
On Thursday morning, police, both on the ground and in helicopters, fired stun grenades and rubber bullets to disperse angry mobs who were chasing the miners.
Rocks, rubble and burning tyres have been used to blockade major roads in the township.